Signs and Symptoms of Periodontal Disease

Close,Up,60,Years,Old,Unhappy,Businesswoman,Having,Toothache,HoldingPeriodontal disease, also known as gum disease, affects millions of people worldwide. It is an infection that affects the gums and surrounding tissues, potentially leading to serious oral health issues if left untreated. Recognizing the signs and symptoms of periodontal disease is crucial for early detection and effective treatment. Here are some key indicators that you may be experiencing periodontal disease.

1. Gingivitis

The initial stage of periodontal disease is known as gingivitis. It is characterized by inflammation and bleeding of the gums. If you notice your gums are red, swollen, or bleed when brushing or flossing, it is a clear indication that something is amiss. Additionally, bad breath or a persistent metallic taste in the mouth may also be present. These early signs should not be ignored, as gingivitis can progress into a more severe form of periodontal disease if not addressed promptly.

2. Receding gums

As periodontal disease progresses, the gums may begin to recede or pull away from the teeth. This creates gaps or pockets between the teeth and gums, providing an entry point for bacteria and plaque to accumulate. If you notice that your teeth appear longer or that your gum line is uneven, it could be a sign of gum recession, which is a strong indicator of periodontal disease.

3. Sensitive teeth

Another symptom of periodontal disease is tooth sensitivity. As the gums recede and expose the root surfaces of the teeth, you may experience heightened sensitivity to hot or cold foods and beverages. This sensitivity occurs because the roots of the teeth are not protected by enamel, making them more vulnerable to temperature changes and other external stimuli.

4. Loose or shifting teeth

As periodontal disease advances, the bone supporting the teeth may become compromised. This can lead to tooth mobility or shifting. If you notice that your teeth feel loose or if they move out of alignment, it is a sign of advanced periodontal disease. Seeking immediate dental attention is crucial to prevent further tooth loss and damage to the surrounding tissues.

5. Pus around the teeth

In advanced stages of periodontal disease, you may observe the presence of pus around the teeth and gums. Pus is a clear indication of an active infection and requires immediate treatment by a dental professional. It is important not to ignore this symptom as it signifies a severe infection that can have serious consequences if left untreated.

6. Pain or discomfort

Pain or discomfort in the gums or teeth is another sign of periodontal disease. This can manifest as a constant throbbing or aching sensation. The pain may worsen when chewing or applying pressure to the affected area. If you experience persistent oral pain, it is crucial to have it evaluated by a dentist to determine the underlying cause and appropriate treatment.

7. Changes in bite or fit of dentures

Periodontal disease can also affect the overall alignment and bite of your teeth. As the supporting bone and gum tissue deteriorate, the teeth may shift or move, causing changes in your bite. This can lead to difficulty in chewing or the feeling that your bite does not align properly. Additionally, if you wear dentures, you may notice a change in the fit or stability of your appliance, which could be due to the underlying gum disease.


Recognizing the signs and symptoms of periodontal disease is essential for maintaining oral health. If you notice any of these indicators, such as gingivitis, receding gums, tooth sensitivity, loose teeth, the presence of pus, oral pain, or changes in bite or fit of dentures, it is important to seek a professional dental care provider promptly. Early detection and treatment of periodontal disease can help prevent further damage and preserve your oral health. Regular dental check-ups, diligent oral hygiene practices, and a healthy lifestyle are also crucial in preventing and managing periodontal disease.

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